I gave up trying to build anything from source and just decided to download the installable versions. It took some pulling of hair and gnashing of teeth but I got it working.
- Download and install Geth installer here: http://www.github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum (the automated development build)
- Download and install Ethereum here: https://build.ethdev.com/builds/Windows C++ develop branch/ (the latest Windows c++ build is a .exe file at the bottom)
- Then download the genesis JSON file (http://jev.io/genesis_block.json) and save it somewhere (it's easiest to save it in the same folder as Geth actually)
- Start Geth and open a new account from the DOS CMD line: "geth account new" (save the account name and password you use). Exit that (CRTL+C)
- Start Geth with the genesis JSON "geth --genesis [path_to_genesis_JSON_filename] and let it catch up to whatever the current block is on http://stats.ethdev.com. Exit that (CRTL+C)
- Start GETH again with the RPC API: "geth --rpc". Now we are ready to start mining.
- Open another DOS terminal and start the miner "ethminer -G --opencl-device 0" and if everything goes right you should be mining away
Thanks to many people on the Freenode IRC #ethereum channel for helping me figure this out.
Edit: These exact steps are confirmed
to work on Windows 7 & 8.1